Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The use of the atomic bomb was the primary reason Essay for Japanese defeat. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. The atomic bomb devasted the two cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. It killed hundreds of thousands of people, especially civilians. After so many defeats in southeast asia, the dropping of such bombs would totally wipe out the morale of the Japanese population. However, there were other reasons as to why Japan surrendered. We will write a custom essay on The use of the atomic bomb was the primary reason specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now One of the other reasons was the battle of coral that they lost. They were the battle of Coral Sea, the battle in the Solomon Islands and the Battle of Midway. The Battle of Midway was especially significant to Japans lost of arms, where they lost a hundred navy officers and four fleets of carriers. With her military might, America used her power and island hopping strategy to retrieve back all pacific islands that was conquered by Japan before. By doing so, they had cut off the supplies of resources and money for the Japanese troops, hence led Japan into her surrender. In conclusion, the primary reason of Japans surrender was that of the atomic bomb was dropped in Japan. Compared to the three maior battles that they fought, the death as extremely high. Because of the atomic bomb, Japan was faced with the complete annihilation of her people or surrender. The economic crisis in Japan did not mean much to the army and they would not surrender and lose their honor because of such a reason. Army officers still refused to surrender even after the first atomic bomb, and so they would not surrender to the economic downturn. .
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Reference List Introduction Fashion is a term that is used to describe the current trends in dressing especially in clothes, accessories, hair styles and footwear. Culture and customs affects the fashion of a particular society. Has fashion really affected the culture? Fashion is usually imitated across cultures and this leads to lack of order in a culture. This makes society lose identity as they eventually forget their roots in culture.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Fashion HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Understanding specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fashion keeps changing and this leads to instability in cultures. Fashion is usually seasonal and changes with time. What is the trend of growth in fashion? What has led to the accelerated change in fashion? This paper will look at fashion in depth and answer questions on change in fashion. Discussion Fashion is a word that is used to refer to clothing in general. This refers to costumes, fabrics, and designs used to make dresses. In western culture, fashion has been changing rapidly depending on seasons. These have been observed by other cultures and have commented on it as instability and lack of order in western culture. In western nations, there have been continuous changes in clothing for men and women. Fashion distinct classes of people in the society where complex and sophisticated fashion is related with the rich and modernity. Change in fashion has been accelerating century after another as it has been now taken by many people as a career. Fashion is also dictated by the occasion, for example, weddings (Laver, 1979). Art historians are able to use fashion in dating images with confidence and clarity. They do this after five years as in 15th century. Marie. Icon of fashion Changes in fashion have continuously distinguished the upper class of Europeans and also have led to development of distinctive national styles. The affluence of early modern Europe has led even the poor and peasantsÃ¢â¬â¢ following the trends of fashion at a distance and this is the main motor of change in fashion.Advertising Looking for article on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The 16th century portraits in German and Italy makes a good example as there were changes in hats designs and it was referred as Spanish style (Timothy, 1999). Colour and pattern of clothes changed year after year but cuttings on length of dresses of both ladies and coats of men changed slowly. Men styles usually were imitated from military officers or in theatres of European war where men were able to dress up in foreign styles. Increased publication of French engravings that showed Paris styles made the fashion to change rapidly from 1780s. By 1800 western Europeans were dressing alike although there were local variations that distinguished pro vincial culture (Braudel, 2004). Dressmakers and tailors have contributed to the changes in fashion for they continue to invent new styles and designs in the market. Professional designers have a hand in the accelerated change in fashion. The flapper styles of 1920s for women marked the major changes in design. The length of skirts was shortened and they were made to be loose fitting (Cumming, 2005). Today, people have a wide range of fashion to choose from. The way a person dresses may reflect his/ her personality. Fashion varies across a society depending on culture, age, weather, occupation, generation and geography. Fashion industry developed as a result of modernity. With the new technologies, fashion industry has greatly developed and clothes are being made from simple to most complex fashion. This has led to changes in fashion and people always wanting to go with the most current fashion. People who like their culture continue making clothes relating to their culture though s lowly by slowly culture is being forgotten (Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry, 2005). Conclusion Fashion has continued to grow over centuries and this has been greatly contributed by modernity. Culture to some extent dictates the growth and adaption of a particular fashion. Fashion differentiates classes of people in the society where complex and sophisticated fashion is related with the rich and modernity. Change in fashion has been accelerating century after another as it has been now taken by many people as a career. Tailors, dressmakers, and designers have contributed to the increased trend in change of fashion. Fashion varies across a society depending on culture, age, weather, occupation, generation, and geography.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Fashion HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Understanding specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Braudel, A. (2004). Understanding Fashion History. New York: Cost ume Fashion Press. Cumming, V. (2005). Western Fashion History. New York: Costume Fashion Press. Intellectual Property in Fashion Industry (2005). WIPO press release Laver, J. (1979). The Concise History of Costume and Fashion. London: Abrams press. Timothy, B. (1999). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. California: University of California Press. This article on Fashion HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Understanding was written and submitted by user BenReilly to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Best Way to Answer the Ã¢â¬Å"ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t You OverqualifiedÃ¢â¬ Interview Question In an ideal world, weÃ¢â¬â¢d all be applying for (and getting) a job that is a perfect, snug fit for our skills, experience, and career goals. In the real world, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not always an option. Maybe you were laid off, and are seeking a foot (any foot!) back in the door of your career path. Perhaps youÃ¢â¬â¢re feeling stalled in your current job, and are looking to move back a step or two to get new skills and experience. Whatever the reason, it could very well lead to the dreaded Ã¢â¬Å"arenÃ¢â¬â¢t you overqualified for this position?Ã¢â¬ question in an interview. Does Ã¢â¬Å"overqualifiedÃ¢â¬ necessarily have to translate to Ã¢â¬Å"disqualifiedÃ¢â¬ ? While this question can feel judge-y and like a bit of a dead end, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be that way. Here are some strategies to consider if/when it comes up.DO emphasize your commitment to the job at hand.This question is really about the interviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s concern that you will fly the coop as soon as a more suitable job comes along. So your first step in answering should be managing that concern. Acknowledge that you may have more experience or seniority than the job description requires, but make sure the interviewer knows that you are interested in the long-term potential for this position.DONÃ¢â¬â¢T turn it into a joke.When acknowledging that yeah, you might have more experience than necessary to be a junior copywriter, donÃ¢â¬â¢t use it as a *wink wink, nudge nudge* jokey moment. Even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re kidding when you say something like, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, itÃ¢â¬â¢s really only temporary. IÃ¢â¬â¢m outta here as soon as my lottery money comes through,Ã¢â¬ it can confirm the interviewerÃ¢â¬â¢s fear that youÃ¢â¬â¢re just looking for a for-now paycheck, and s/he will be rehiring in six monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a serious question, and deserves a serious, well-thought-out response.DO be honestÃ¢â¬ ¦If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been unemployed for a while, your resume will show that. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to be up front and say that you understand that this might not be the most orthodox choice for someone with your history, but that youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to commit to something permanent, with growth potential. Emphasize that with the job market the way it is, youÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking a place to put down roots and flourish, using everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned along the way.Ã¢â¬ ¦But DONÃ¢â¬â¢T feel like you have to tell the whole story.If you applied for an entry-level position (despite 15 years of experience) out of desperation, try to keep that note out of the discussion. A sob story may get pity from an interviewer, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not likely to net a job offer. Make sure the focus stays on your qualifications, and your commitment to the job.DO emphasize the opportunity presented.If necessary (like if the interviewer has a blatant case of Skeptical Face), make sure you drive the point home that you see this position as an opportunity, not a settling point. Talk about how the skills you have can push the position to a new level, while you learn even more about the field. Talk about where you want to grow professionally, and how the job fits in with that goal.DONÃ¢â¬â¢T shut the door to future growth.If the interviewer suggests (or says outright) that there may not be raises or promotion opportunities in this particular position, stick to your forward-looking script: Ã¢â¬Å"I understand that this particular position may not be where I want to be in 10 years, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m confident that the company would offer other opportunities for me to grow professionally and be of service. This company is where I want to be, and this job is the right starting place.Ã¢â¬ And the most important Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ of all in this case: DONÃ¢â¬â¢T let it discourage you. If the interviewer truly thought your experience was an automatic dealbreaker, you never would have gotten the interview call in the first place. This is a chance for you to m ake your case, and explain how your many qualifications work in your favor. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let your hard-won experience pull you down. It can, will, and should work for you if you know how to spin it.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Societies under Shogun RuleThe Ming & Qing - Essay Example This period, which started in 1368 until 1644, is marked by the decline of the decadent feudal system and the emergence of the embryonic capitalism in China. However, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s shogun period was part of the early feudal system that would dominate Japan for more than 700 years. (Morgan 2003, 42) As both Ming/Qing and the Shogun societies were established as feudal societies above all, therefore, they share many characteristics. For instance, both had governments and rulers who enforced control over a highly fragmented society. The shogunate in Japan imposed guidelines for the creation and preservation of a stable national structure. This was achieved by implementing a highly hierarchical society, wherein the primary morality is based upon public rapport between master and subordinate. (Ratti & Westbrook 1991, 62) Such perspective determined the shape and functionality of the major social organizations of the shogunate societies. To illustrate: one of the rules/norms in the Japanese society then was that there was no more despicable crime than that of rebellion against a master. Because of this hierarchical social structure, the shogun was able to elevate the social structure which sealed the subjects of the nation into classes according to a vertical order of pragmatic impo rtance drawing heavily upon the military character and strength of the warriors to whom all other subjects were subordinated. The social pyramid follows this structure with the shogun and his class at the top. From 1615 onward, laws specifically determining the legal positions of and functions of the imperial court and its aristocratic families (Kuge sho-hatto), of the military class (Buke Sho-hatto), of religious orders (Jin-hatto), of the farmers (Goson-hatto), of commoners in Edo and, by analogy, in every town (Edo-machiju-sadame) were issued by the military government of the Tokugawa shoguns.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Final examination - Essay Example stedeÃ¢â¬â¢s dimensions for comparative cross-cultural studies, and they have led to many useful explanations of cross-cultural differences in consumer behavior. The main reason that may have rendered HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s useful is that these dimensions are independent. Only two dimensions are interdependent, and these are collectivism and power distance. Together with national wealth, HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s dimensions can be used to explain more than half of the differences in consumer behavior. TompenaarsÃ¢â¬â¢ dimensions do not show results that are as consistent as the Hofstede dimensions. The word cultura is a Latin word closely related to cultus which means cult or worship. Therefore, culture may be considered as the result of human action. According to Hofstede (2001), national culture is the broadest level of culture that a person can be a member of. People are shaped by their national culture from their early childhood through beliefs, values and assumptions inherent in it. The theory of cultural dimensions is central to the study of consumer behavior across the world especially in analyzing the effect of culture on consumer behavior. The Theory of Cultural Dimensions was introduced in 1980 by Geert Hofstede. This theory was based on his study of cultural solutions to organizational problems involving 117,000 employees at IBM in 40 countries. According to Hofstede (2001), the individualism dimension describes the relations between the individual and the collectivity that exists in a given society. His dimension represents a society that has loose ties between ind ividuals. Individualistic countries stress the importance of human independence, and individual liberty and self-reliance. Individualists promote the unrestricted exercise o individual goals and desires. Mooij (2010) terms power distance as the degree to which less influential members of the public admit that power is unevenly distributed. In the world, there are both high-power and low-power distance cultures.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
How would Fredrickson explain Alexies - Essay Example e work provided, the virtue of all American institutions and people, and the mission aimed at spreading all these institutions (Colombo, Cullen and Lisle 449). These themes were aimed at remaking and saving the entire earth as seen by America. The arguments supporting these themes claimed that America could make a better and new society that could be termed as beginning of a new world. There are a number of ethnic relations models in America presented by George Frederickson but in this essay the greater focus in on the historical perspective. In his representation, he has a presentation of the ethnic relations evolution that he ultimately did using four main concepts; cultural pluralism, ethnic hierarchy, group separation and one-way assimilation. The author used the latter to show that the outsiders, commonly referred to as minorities, were not to be considered as outsiders anymore. These groups of the blacks, native Americans, Irish individuals were expected to experience equity and complete participation in the society of the Americans. This meant that all the minorities had to confirm to the culture of the Americans. The one way assimilation model explained just as one assimilates into the American culture, it was essential to have all the people in America interact and communicate without instances of miscommunication (Nguyen 16). A good example is the divers e meaning of nodding ones head in a case of answering a question among the American and Bulgarian people. In America, nodding ones head means complying or a positive answer whereas it is the complete opposite in Bulgaria. However, one assimilation model provides information that ensures adaptation of such a person to the American culture without miscommunications. Fredrick essay provided a description of all available American ethnic relations. In addition, he wrote to depict the manner in which these different groups were supposed to interrelate so that they would handle each other in the creation of a
Friday, November 15, 2019
Definition Of Motivation In Sport This reviewed research is on motivation in sport. A variety of definitions and approaches to the study motivation will be discussed. One of the forms of motivation being discussed will be intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivations are very important for promoting satisfaction and long term participation in sport. There are three academic approaches to the study of intrinsic motivation: behavioral, cognitive, and motivational. Researchers have found that the intrinsic motivation of athletes seems very important for continuing participation, and elite performance in sport. Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that an individual has that comes from outside sources. The motivating forces are external or exterior rewards such as money or awards. These rewards supply fulfillment and satisfaction that the mission itself may not supply. Another form of motivation has to do with gender. Researches have determined that there are motivational differences among male and femal e sports. Its also been determined that male and female athletes possess different strengths and weaknesses within the motivational climate. Some detailed differences stated were that men had higher levels of motivation in competition, social acknowledgment, strength and endurance, where women had stronger motivation to control weight. The last factor I will cover is cultural effect on motivation. Introduction to your Research Topic Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are both adaptable and adjust in reaction to specific situations. While not easy to define, intrinsic motivation can be explained as an internal drive to perform an activity. While extrinsic motivation is known as an external motivating source that drives action. It is said that people attribute their behavior either to an internal or external source. Intrinsic motivation correlates positively when people attribute their motivation to internal sources, while extrinsic motivation is correlated to belief in an external source for their behavior (Wiersma, U. J., 1992). Extrinsic motivation, by definition, is changeable since it is an external motivator one can change the reward or external. Meta-analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational research by Deci, Koestner and Ryan (1999) found that intrinsic motivation is negatively affected when tangible extrinsic motivation is attached to the behavior. This undermining of intrinsic motivation is post ulated to be the result of a perceived decrease in autonomy and competency by the individual receiving the extrinsic reward. Self-determination Theory states that humans have three innate needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Of these, autonomy and competence are the key drivers of intrinsic motivation (Franken, 2002). As a result we see that intrinsic motivation can be changed by adding an extrinsic motivating component. Background of the Research Topic When you start discussing the nature of motivation of sport through gender, you have to ask yourself a question. Has the perceptions of sports progressed in ways that reflect participation in sport? Additional contribution in media exposure of high action sports has increased considerably since the earlier studies had examined attitudes toward gender-appropriate sports. Motivation in sports and exercise has been studied over the last century but only in recent decades has motivation by gender been analyzed. Studies in the area of motivation by gender in these sports and exercise fields: individual and team sports and exercise, martial arts, basketball, volleyball, track and field, and general sports participation and exercise (Kilpatrick, Hebert, Bartholomew, 2005). These results were the most consistent throughout the reports with other similarities and differences noted with each study. Deci, et al. (1999) stated that intrinsic motivation can also be improved by increasing an individuals perceptions of autonomy and ability. Deci, et al. (1999) also showed that research supported the notion that extrinsic motivations impact on intrinsic motivation was influenced by the controlling nature of those extrinsic rewards. For example, positive feedback that is not measured as controlling would likely add to a persons perceived ability to have a positive effect on their intrinsic motivation. Vallerand (2000) looks at motivation in a multidimensional approach that changes more than the differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. He states that motivation for both is on a scale that ranges from a high to low level of willpower and that operates on three distinctive levels: global which is an individuals overall general motivation in a specific domain or field such as education or sports. Situational or the here and now. For each of these levels individuals can have dive rse motivation levels both intrinsic and extrinsic way. For instance, a person can be greatly intrinsically motivated to participate in sports, but less intrinsically motivated concerning education (global). However, if a person is feeling sick or tired, they may not have the equal intrinsic motivation to participate in sports activities that day (situational). Extrinsic rewards can be useful to both and impact situational motivation in both the short and long term. For example, that individual might be highly motivated to do well on a test and receive a good grade (extrinsic motivation) so that they can be eligible to play on their sports team (intrinsic motivation). Vallerand (2000) postulates that repeated levels of low levels of situational intrinsic motivation will likely have a diminishing effect on the larger contextual intrinsic motivation. He highlights research done on motivation to play basketball where intrinsic motivational levels were affected by situational motivation al levels during tournament games. This research has many implications for organizations and educational situations. While understanding that extrinsic motivation is one of the main drivers of the business world, compensation and other incentive packages need to address their impact on intrinsic motivation and be developed in ways that will reduce the adverse affects or possibly even add to the intrinsic motivational levels. More research on real life situations would be beneficial. Impact on sports Gender: Even though the experiences of many girls and women in the United States point to the opposite, research demonstrates that media always present sports as the a male dominated field (Duncan Sayaovong, 1990; Hardin, Lynn, Walsdoff, Hardin, 2002; Pedersen, 2002). Several studies have established that female athletes have been greatly underrepresented in the media (Bernstein, 2002; Pedersen, 2002). The rationale for this may possibly be that the mainly accepted sports in the country are those looked upon to be masculine sports (Messner, 2002). However, since Title IX, the progress of women into various sports that are not considered feminine has been extraordinary. Women participate in practically all types of sport, including those used to display the ultimate masculinity. Even though gender-role differences are natural in accepted perception, research has extensively demonstrated that, as an alternative, most are publicly constructed (Bandura, 1986; Messner, 2002). Gender stereotypin g is everywhere, unseen regulators of relationships and opportunities. Banduras social cognitive theory is a key in understanding the factors in socialization. The theory argues that behavior, environmental actions, and cognitive factors work to form attitudes and action. Individuals consider action and its result, projecting cost and adjusting accordingly. Therefore, action is not a result of imprinted histories as much as it is a result of cognized futures (Bandura, 1986, p. 19). Bandura emphasizes the role of the media in social learning so much that, he argues; television persuade has dethroned the primacy of interpersonal experience. As a result, life models the media (Bandura, 1986, p. 20). Findings of previous research Gender Motivation is a crucial factor within the sport and exercise field. Understanding what and how motivation works is equally important. Based on these reviews gender also plays a role within the motivational climate. Studies have revealed variations in motivational factors within each gender. In Chie-der, Chen, Hung-yu, and Li-Kangs journal 87 male and 87 female basketball players from the HBL were selected for the research. Four research questionnaires were used to measure four phenomena: participants goal orientation, the motivational climate they perceived, perceived personal athletic ability, perceived personal sport-related confidence (Chie-der, Chen, Hung-yu, Li-Kang,2003). Using a t test gender differences were detected. Males tended to record higher scores than females for sports related confidence variables. Males scored higher within ego orientation, perceived ability, and in physical performance. Females tended to score higher in task orientation, perceived task climate, and leadership styles (Chie-der, Chen, Hung-yu, Li-Kang,2003). In Kilpatrick, Hebert, Bartholomews study 233 students were studied, 132 women, 101 men. The purpose behind this study was to compare sports participation and exercise motivation through a highly differentiated scale of physical activity. The second objective was to investigate the impact of gender on motivation. This study determined that men were more highly motivated then women when it came to endurance and strength, social recognition, challenge, and most notably competition, where women were more motivated by weight management (Kilpatrick, Hebert, Bartholomew, 2005). It was further suggested in this analysis that motivations to engage in sports differed from motivators to engage in exercise. It was also noted that more of the health related motives were linked to exercise opposed to sports participation thus indicating that sports participation are more closely related to intrinsic motives. It was suggested that based on these findings that men leaned more closely to intrinsic motivation then women. This study further implied that men viewed exercise and fitness opportunities as a means to achieve ego related goals that support their sports participation where as women seemed to enjoy exercise and sports participation equally (Kilpatrick, Hebert, Bartholomew, 2005). Conclusions section It is concluded that it is important for coaches, teachers and parents to stress to young athletes the need to improve skills, teamwork and sportsmanship over the win at all costs attitude. Terms/concepts Self-determination Goal orientations Motivational climate Perceived competence Behavioral Cognitive Motivational Global motivation Situational motivation Perceptions References page JAM Murcia,(2008) Relationships among Goal Orientations, Motivational Climate and Flow in Adolescent Athletes: Difference by Gender,The Spanish Journal of Psychology, volume 11, number 1, 181-191. Kilpatrick, Hebert, and Bartholomew, (2005) College Students Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Mens and Womens Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise, Journal of American College Health, volume 54, number2 Gareth W. Jones, Ken S. Mackay, and Derek M. Peters, (2006) Participation Motivation in Martial Artists in the West Midlands Region of England, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine CSSI, 28-34 Dongfang Chie-der, Steve Chen, Chou Hung-yu, and Chi Li-Kang, (2003), Gender Differential in the Goal Setting, Motivation, Perceived Ability, and Confidence Sources of Basketball Players, The Sport Journal ISSN 1543-9518 Gillison, Standage, Skevington, (2006), Relationships among adolescents weight perceptions, exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and leisure-time exercise behavior: a self-determination theory approach, Oxford Journals, Vol. 21, no. 6 Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., and Ryan, R. M., (1999). Meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic reward and intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin (125). Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from EBSCOhost. Franken, R. E., (2002). Human Motivation. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA. Vallerand, R. J., (2000). Deci and Ryans Self-Determination Theory: A view from the Hierarchical Model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Wiersma, U. J., (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (65). Retrieved on November 13, 2010 from EBSCOhost.